28th February 2017

William Shakespeare’s – MACBETH

Act 1, Scene 1 Summary

Characters: The three witches

Location: A desert place

Time: Unknown (before the end of the battle)

Events: The witches plan to meet again after the battle is over. They plan to meet Macbeth on the heath.

Quote: “Fair is foul and foul is fair” – witches

A Paradox

Act 1, Scene 2 Summary

Characters: King Duncan, Malcolm, Lenox, Captain, Rosse

Location: A camp near Forres

Time: At the end of the battle

Events: The King hears how the battle ended, with Scotland victorious, through the injured Captain and Rosse. Macbeth is spoken in high regard for his actions during the battle, killing Macdonwald and many more Norwegian. The Scots forbid the Norwegians from burying their men unless they are paid $10,000. The Thane of Cawdor is ordered to be killed for his traitorous actions and Macbeth is meant to take over his land and title.

Quote: “What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won” – King Duncan

Act 1, Scene 3 Summary

Characters: The three witches, Macbeth, Banquo, Ross, Angus

Location: A heath near Forres

Time: At the end of the battle

Events: The witches meet again and recount their stories of evil. Macbeth is “hailed” by the witches as becoming the future King and Banquo is told that his children would become kings. The witches disappear when Macbeth questions their validity, and Ross and Angus enter. They tell Macbeth and Banquo that the King wants to see Macbeth and that he will become the new Thane of Cawdor. This causes Macbeth to fall into a flurry of confusion; a combination of joy and doubt.

Quote: “The Thane of Cawdor lives: why do you dress me in borrow’d robes?” – Macbeth

Macbeth had no knowledge of Cawdor’s traitorous actions although we, the audience/readers, do. 

Act 1, Scene 4 Summary

Characters: Duncan, Malcolm, Donaldbain, Lenox, Macbeth, Banquo, Rosse, Angus

Location: Forres, a room in the King’s palace

Time: Sometime after Cawdor’s execution

Events: Duncan is discussing Cawdor’s executing when Macbeth and co. enter the room. The King praises Macbeth and Macbeth acts gracious, behaving as if his service is rewarding enough. Duncan then bestows his son Malcolm as his heir and informs Macbeth that he is coming to his house.


“The Prince of Cumberland! – That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o’erleap, for in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires! Let not light see my black and deep desires; the eye wink at the hand, yet let that be, which the eye fears, when it is done, to see.” – Macbeth

Stars = Heaven or God. A metaphor suggesting the extinguishing of the ‘oversight’ of heaven. 


Exploring the idea of denial where a person can act without consciously acknowledging the import of their actions.


Act 1, Scene 5 Summary

Characters: Lady Macbeth, Macbeth, Messenger

Location: Inverness, a room in Macbeth’s castle

Time: After Macbeth’s meeting with King Duncan

Events: Lady Macbeth is reading a letter to her from Macbeth, relaying his interaction with the witches. She is determined for the witch’s prophecy to ring true but fears that Macbeth lacks the courage required to kill Duncan. Therefore she believes the responsibility falls on her and wills herself to do the deed.

Quote: “… That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me, from the crown to the toe, top-full of direst cruelty…” – Macbeth

Act 1, Scene 6 & 7 Summary

Characters: Duncan, Malcolm, Donalbain, Banquo, Lenox, Macduff, Rosse, Angus, Macbeth & Lady Macbeth

Location: Inverness, in front then within, Macbeth’s castle

Time: Before King Duncan enters Macbeth’s castle

Events: Duncan is greeted by Lady Macbeth who acts over-the-top with kindness, sucking up to Duncan, in order to hide her alternative motive. We hear Macbeth’s thoughts as he begins to doubt whether Duncan should be killed. Duncan’s familiar relations, his lack of doing anything against Macbeth and his qualities as a leader, fill his head with doubt as he imagines the negative repercussions of Duncan’s death. This results in a fight with Lady Macbeth over whether Duncan should be murdered.

Quote: “… I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself and falls on the other – ” – Macbeth

Macbeth believes his only aid to killing Duncan is ‘ambition’ and the repercussions of the murder would not be worth it; ultimately he imagines that he will fail.

Act 2, Scene 1 Summary

Characters: Banquo, Fleance, Macbeth

Location: Macbeth’s castle

Time: During King Duncan’s visit

Events: Macbeth awakens in the night with intentions to kill Macbeth but meets Banquo and Fleance in the corridor. Banquo says that he has been dreaming about the witches to which Macbeth denies that he ever thinks about them (dramatic irony). Banquo states that he would join Macbeth’s side as long as no foul play is involved. Once he has bid goodbye to the father/son duo, Banquo’s statement prompts Macbeth to debate further with himself and results in his sub-conscious mind taking control as he pictures a dagger and he tears himself up over the idea of murdering Duncan. However, once the bell has rung, he ultimately reaches the decision that he will kill Duncan that midnight.

Quote: “Is this a dagger which I see before me?” Macbeth

Macbeth is on edge, the thought of killing Duncan fills him with insanity and he is seeing things as he convinces himself to muster up the courage and commit the murder. 

Act 2, Scene 2 Summary

Characters: Lady Macbeth, Macbeth

Location: Macbeth’s castle

Time: Directly after Duncan’s murder

Events: Macbeth meets Lady Macbeth after he has killed Duncan. Macbeth is wretched with guilt and unease, shaken after hearing a voice telling him he would never sleep again. Lady Macbeth attempts, to no avail, to convince Macbeth to overcome his culpability and that it is not a big deal. However, Macbeth is aware that he has no way of making up for what he has done and must live with his guilt forever. The biggest idea from this scene is the contrasting personalities of Macbeth and his wife. He is filled with remorse that he knows will be emotional scarring, whereas Lady Macbeth acknowledges she is just as guilty as he, however, holds no regret and believes that washing her hands of Duncan’s blood will remove tangible proof as well as mental guilt.

Quote: “My hands are of your colour; but I shame to wear a heart so white.” – Lady Macbeth

Lady Macbeth is ashamed of Macbeth’s cowardly heart.

Act 2, Scene 3 Summary

Characters: Macduff, Porter, Lenox, Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Banquo, Malcolm, Donalbain

Location: Macbeth’s castle

Time: Morning after Duncan’s murder

Events: Macduff and Lenox enter the castle to call upon the King. Lenox describes a horrible night, mother nature’s response to the murder although no one, aside from Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, is aware of it yet. Macduff enters Duncan’s room to the sight of his dead body and draws the attention of the whole house to his murder. Macbeth reveals that he has killed the guards, describing his motive as a result of his fury that they supposedly murdered the King. Macbeth’s intentions from verbalising this portray him as a hero, a man who had such love for the King he committed murder to avenge him. This ploy places Macbeth even further away from seeming like he is actually guilty of killing Duncan. Malcolm and Donalbain are aware that fingers will get pointed at them due to their familiar relations to Duncan and decide to flee although separately in order to remain safer, Donalbain to Ireland and Malcolm to England.

Quote #1: “…The expedition of my violent love outran the pauser reason. Here lay Duncan, his silver skin laced with golden blood; and his gashed stabs looked like a breach in nature for ruin’s wasteful entrance: there, the murderers steeped in the colours of their trade, their daggers unmannerly breeched with gore. Who could refrain, that had a heart to love, and in that heart courage, to make’s love known?” – Macbeth

Macbeth’s “passionate love” for the King caused him to hastily act without thinking through his actions.

Metaphor – Macbeth making Duncan sound as royal and worldly as possible. (How could anyone who loved the King as much as Macbeth makes out to ever be guilt of killing him?)

Simile – Breach: A gaping hole in the natural world, through which death (ruin) could make its destructive (wasteful) entrance. 

Who wouldn’t kill the supposedly guilty guards unless they didn’t truly have a love for the King?

Quote #2: “There’s daggers in men’s smiles; the near in blood, the nearer the bloody.”

Friends who appear nice can turn dangerous for the brothers as the men attempt to find the murderer. The closer they are to their friends the more danger the pair are in.

Act 2, Scene 4 Summary

Characters: Rosse, Old Man, Macduff

Location: Outside the castle

Time: Sometime after Duncan’s death

Events: Rosse is talking to an old man about the supernatural events occurring, the world has been turned upside down. The night is prolonged as the sun hasn’t made an appearance and Duncan’s horses were seen eating one another. Macduff reveals Malcolm and Donalbain’s escape and says that it places suspicion on them. Due to this, they discuss that Macbeth will now be invested as King. While Macduff will travel to Fife, Rosse will travel to Scone where Macbeth will be crowned.

Quote: “And yet dark night strangles the travelling lamp.” – Rosse

Act 3, Scene 1 Summary

Characters: Banquo, Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Lenox, Rosse, Murderers

Location: Forres, in the palace

Time: After Macbeth’s coronation

Events: Macbeth has been crowned King. Banquo fears that Macbeth killed Duncan, prompting him to wonder if his prophecy will come true too. Macbeth questions Banquo about his plans and sends everyone away to think over his concerns about Banquo. Macbeth worries that Banquo’s prophecy will also come true and in order to prevent Banquo from gaining from Macbeth’s actions, he convinces two murderers that Banquo is their enemy and they should kill both him and Fleance, Banquo’s son.

Quote: “Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown, and put a barren sceptre in my gripe.” – Macbeth

The crown is fruitless and the sceptre barren because Macbeth’s children will not be heirs if the witch’s prophecy comes true.

Act 3, Scene 2 Summary

Characters: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Servant

Location: Forres, in the palace

Time: After Macbeth ordered Banquo’s death

Events: Lady Macbeth is alone and shares her thoughts of concern that they have achieved nothing and have given everything; they must live as murderers rather than dampen their joy by worry. Macbeth is worried that although Duncan is dead, there are still dangers present. Macbeth casually hints that something terrible is about to take place (Banquo and Fleance being killed) although doesn’t fully articulate it so that he can protect Lady Macbeth.

Quote #1: “We have scorched the snake, not killed it.” – Macbeth

Macbeth believes there are still threats to them

Quote #2: “And make our faces vizards to our hearts, disguising what they are.” – Macbeth

At his coronation party, they must hide who they truly are (murderers) from the others.

Quote #3: “O! full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife!” – Macbeth

Metaphor: His mind is taken over by worries

Quote #4: “Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck, till thou applaud the deed.”

Plausible deniability: To hide something bad from someone in order to protect them so they can safely say they have no knowledge of whatever dreadful action is about to be performed. 

Act 3, Scene 3 Summary

Characters: Three Murderers

Location: Forres, a park with a road leading to the palace

Time: After Macbeth ordered Banquo’s death

Events: The murderers kill Banquo, however, Fleance escapes.

Quote: “O, treachery! Fly, good Fleance, fly, fly, fly! Thou mayest revenge!” – Banquo

Act 3, Scene 4 Summary

Characters: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Rosse, Lenox, Lords, Ghost of Banquo, Murderer

Location: Forres, a room in the palace

Time: At Macbeth’s coronation party

Events: Macbeth is informed of Banquo’s death although Fleance’s escape concerns him. Macbeth pretends that he is upset Banquo hasn’t come when the ghost of Banquo enters and Macbeth yells that nobody can say he killed him. Lady Macbeth attempts to make up for her husband’s outbursts as the party guests worry he has fallen ill, then tells him off for his “hallucinations.” Banquo leaves and Macbeth attempts to regain his composure and apologises for his outbursts. At this moment Banquo re-appears and again shakes Macbeth up as he tells Banquo to leave. He is full of confusion as he can’t see how the others aren’t as scared of the appearance of Banquo’s ghost as he was; he doesn’t realise that only he can see him. This second round of outbursts causes the thanes to leave as Lady Macbeth sends them away with an explanation that he is simply sick. Macbeth is now concerned that Macduff didn’t attend the party and decides to revisit the witches to learn what is to come. He vows that, as he already has killed two, he won’t stop now if it means he can get what he wants.

Quote #1: “There the grown serpent lies: the worm, that’s fled, hath nature that in time will venom breed, no teeth for the present.” – Macbeth

Banquo is dead but Fleance has the possibility to become dangerous even though he is harmless at present.  

Quote #2: “I am in blood. Stepped in so far, that, should I wade no more, returning were as tedious as go o’er.”

Macbeth compares his situation to crossing a river of blood: he has gone so far that it would be difficult to go back as to continue to the other side.

Act 3, Scene 5 Summary

Characters: Three Witches, Hecate

Location: The Heath

Time: After Macbeth’s coronation party (specific time unknown)

Events: The witch goddess, Hecate, rebukes the witches for not informing her of their plans with Macbeth and she vows to lead him to his destruction through a sense of his own security.

Quote: “He shall spurn fate, scorn death, and bear his hopes ‘bove wisdom, grace and fear; and you all know, security is mortals’ chiefest enemy.” – Hecate

Macbeth will have unrealistic hopes and will be blind to wisdom, religious grace or fear. He is overconfident and this will kill him.

Act 3, Scene 6 Summary

Characters: Lenox and a Lord

Location: Somewhere in Scotland

Time: After Macbeth’s coronation party (specific time unknown)

Events: Lenox is suspicious about Duncan’s and Banquo’s deaths, he doesn’t believe that the sons are to blame. The Lord reports that Malcolm is with the English King, Edward the Confessor and that Macduff has traveled there to rally support for an attack upon Macbeth. We learn that many Scottish citizens (such as the Lord) are anti-Macbeth as God is not providing them with food or sleep, therefore, Macbeth’s way must not be God’s way and is ultimately wrong. They compare him to Edward the Confessor, who is the religious English King, and the contrast between Edward’s goodness and Macbeth’s evil is very evident.

Quote: “Fly to the court of England, and unfold his message ere he come, that a swift blessing may soon return to this our suffering country under a hand accursed!” – Lenox (talking about Macduff and how he should avoid Macbeth)

Act 4, Scene 1 Summary

Characters: Three Witches, Hecate, Macbeth, Apparitions, Lenox

Location: A dark cave.

Time: After Macduff moved to England

Events: In preparation for Macbeth’s visit, the Witches create a magic brew. Hecate enters and praises the Witches for their actions. Macbeth arrives and commands the Witches to answer his questions regardless of any consequences. Therefore, the Witches call their “masters” and they come in the form of apparitions. The first apparition is an armoured head and he warns Macbeth about Macduff. The second apparition is a bloody child who then reassures him that he cannot be harmed by any man to whom a woman has given birth. Macbeth decides that he wants to kill Macduff for security, prompting the arrival of the third apparition who is a child wearing a crown and carrying a tree. It says that Macbeth should be courageous and will not be defeated until Birnam wood comes to Dunsinane. Macbeth is insistent on knowing whether Banquo’s descendants will ever be kings and the Witches show him a procession of eight kings, following Banquo, the last with a mirror in his hand, indicating the current King. After his meeting with the witches, Lenox comes to report to Macbeth that Macduff has fled to England and Macbeth decides to attack Macduff’s castle and kill his family.

Quote: “Time, thou anticipat’st my dread exploits: The flighty purpose never is o’ertook, unless the deed go with it. From this moment the very firstlings of my heart shall be the firstlings pf my hand. And even now, to crown my thoughts with acts, be it thought and done.” – Macbeth

Time is a step ahead of Macbeth’s plans and he decides he must act now and kill Macduff’s family, as the timing is right and if he overthinks, it will be too late. 

Act 4, Scene 2 Summary

Characters: Lady Macduff, Her Son, Rosse, Messenger, Murderers

Location: Fife, A room in Macduff’s castle

Time: After Macbeth’s second visit to the witches

Events: Lady Macduff tells Rosse that Macduff fleeing to England shows that he has little concern for his family. Rosse leaves and Lady Macduff discusses her husband with her son, who refuses to believe that his father is dead. They deliberate over traitors. Lady Macduff sees her husband as one as he took an oath and broke it (perhaps referring to their marriage vows as well as loyalty to the king). A messenger enters and tells Lady Macduff that she is in danger and should leave however the murderers enter and kill her and her son.

Quote: “Whither should I fly? I have done no harm. But I remember now I am in the earthly world, where to do harm is often laudable, to do good sometime accounted dangerous folly: why then, alas, do I put up that womanly defence, to say, I have done no harm?” – Lady Macduff

With Macbeth as King, doing harm is praise while doing good is often considered dangerous and foolish. 

Act 4, Scene 3 Summary

Characters: Malcolm, Macduff, Doctor, Rosse

Location: England, A room in the King’s castle

Time: After Lady Macduff and her children’s death

Events: Macduff visits Malcolm in England. Malcolm is suspicious, fearing that Macduff might betray his to Macbeth for a personal reward; this dismays Macduff. To test Macduff’s loyalty, Malcolm pretends that he is even more sinful than Macbeth, pretending he is lustful and avaricious, ultimately lacking the virtues kings should possess. However, Macduff is still strong in supporting Malcolm as the new King, believing he is still a better option than Macbeth. Finally, Macduff believes that Malcolm is full of vices and angrily rejects him as fit to rule Scotland. This satisfies Malcolm of Macduff’s loyalty and prompts him to reveal to Macduff what his plan was and why he lied about his vices. Malcolm explains King Edward the Confessor’s powers to cure “the King’s evil.” Rosse arrives to report the latest news from Scotland, reporting that Macduff’s family are well and that good men are planning to rebel against Macbeth. Malcolm then confirms his plans to invade Scotland with the support of an English army. Rosse breaks the news to Macduff about the murders. Malcolm tries to comfort Macduff, telling him to turn his grief into revenge.

Quote #1: “I think our country sinks beneath the yoke; it weeps, it bleeds; and each new day a gash is added to her wounds.” – Malcolm

Metaphor: Malcolm fears that Scotland is being dragged down by the tyrant personality of Macbeth.

Quote #2: “Be comforted: Let’s make us medicines of our great revenge, to cure this deadly grief.” – Malcolm

Act 5, Scene 1 Summary

Characters: Doctor, Waiting-Gentlewoman, Lady Macbeth

Location: Dunsinane, A room in the King’s castle

Time: After Macduff hears of his children’s death

Events: Lady Macbeth’s gentlewoman tells a doctor about her mistress’s behaviours while sleepwalking. Then Lady Macbeth sleepwalks in, carrying a candle. In this state, she constantly rubs her hand, imagining she is washing blood off her hands and talks about all the murders.

Quote #1: “Out, damned spot! out, I say! – One; two; why, then ‘t is time to do ‘t. – Hell is murky. – Fie, my Lord, fie! a soldier, and afeard? – What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account? – Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him?” – Lady Macbeth

Lady Macbeth knows that she and Macbeth are so powerful that nobody can hold them account for their actions. However, guilt still overcomes her as she thinks of all the people, specifically Duncan, they killed.

Quote #2: “What’s done cannot be undone…” – Lady Macbeth

Related to when Lady Macbeth tells Macbeth: “what’s done is done” (from Act 3, Scene 2).

Act 5, Scene 2 Summary

Characters: Menteth, Cathness, Angus, Lenox, Soldiers

Location: The country near Dunsinane

Time: After Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking is observed

Events: The Scottish army opposing Macbeth approaches Dunsinane and the thanes discuss Macbeth’s loss of control. As the rebel Scots march towards Birnam to meet the English army led by Malcom and Macduff, Macbeth receives reports of the approaching forces. but comforts himself with the Witches’ predictions.

Quote: “Now does he fell his secret murders sticking on his hands; now minutely revolts upbraid his faith-breach: Those he commands move only in command, nothing in love: now does he feel his title hang loose around him, like a giant’s robe upon a dwarfish thief.” – Angus discussing Macbeth’s loss of control and lack of respect.

Act 5, Scene 3 Summary

Characters: Macbeth, Doctor, Servant, Seyton

Location: Dunsinane, a room in the castle

Time: As Macbeth receives reports of the approaching forces.

Events: Malcolm and Macduff lead the English army to meet the rebel Scots, causing Macbeth a moment of concern but he quashes these worries by convincing himself of the fact that the witches said no man born by a woman could harm him. Macbeth accepts that he will never live with the honour and respect that most older people gain. The doctor informs Macbeth that Lady Macbeth is sick in the mind, therefore, he cannot fix her, which Macbeth is not happy to hear. Macbeth asks for his armor in order to fight.

Quote: “Cure her of that.
Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased,
Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow,
Raze out the written troubles of the brain
And with some sweet oblivious antidote
Cleanse the stuff’d bosom of that perilous stuff
Which weighs upon the heart?” – Macbeth

Macbeth does not like problems not having an easy fix, he likes things to be done quickly, demonstrated through how he rose to power.

Act 5, Scene 4 Summary

Characters: Malcolm, Old Siward, His Son, Macduff, Menteth, Cathness, Angus, Lenox, Rosse, Soldiers

Location: Country near Dunsinane, a wood is in view

Time: Prior to the battle

Events: The English army and the rebel Scots meet and join forces. Malcolm orders the every soldier conceals himself upon approach, by cutting down a bough from Birnam wood. The army hears that many have left Macbeth’s side.

Quote: “T is his main hope; for where there is advantage to be gone, both more and less have given him the revolt, and none serve with him but constrained things, whose hearts are absent too.” – Malcolm

Malcolm states that Macbeth’s only hope is fortifying the castle and withstanding the siege as many followers have deserted him.

Act 5, Scene 5 Summary

Characters: Macbeth, Seyton, Messenger Soldiers

Location: Dunsinane, within the castle

Time: Prior to the battle

Events: Macbeth believes that the strength of his castle can withstand a siege. He hears the cry of a woman and learns that Lady Macbeth has died. This prompts Macbeth to ponder what point life has to it. He then hears from a messenger that Birnam wood began to move, causing Macbeth to worry about the Witches prophecy. He begins to believe that his take-down is possible but vows to fight until he dies.

Quote: “She should have died hereafter.
There would have been a time for such a word.
Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day
To the last syllable of recorded time.
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle.
Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage,
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.” – Macbeth

Macbeth speaks this after Lady Macbeth’s death. His grief is apparent as he describes how the days stretched out into one another.

Act 5, Scene 6 Summary

Characters: Malcolm, Old Siward, Macduff, Army

Location: Dunsinane, a plain before the castle

Time: Prior to the battle

Events: They come on carrying trees. Malcolm begins to give orders about the battle and Macduff signals the trumpets to begin the battle.

Quote: “Make all our trumpets speak; give them all breath, those clamorous harbingers of blood and death.” – Macduff

Act 5, Scene 7 Summary

Characters: Macbeth, Young Siward, Macduff, Malcolm, Old Siward

Location: Dunsinane, another plain before the castle

Time: During the battle

Events: Macbeth comes across Siward’s son and he is confident that he cannot be harmed by any man born of woman. He kills Young Siward and leaves the castle just before Macduff comes in to look for him, closely followed by Malcolm and Young Siward.

Quote: “… Tyrant, show thy face: If thous be’st slain, and with no stroke of mine, my wife and children’s ghosts will haunt me still…” – Macduff

Act 5, Scene 8 Summary

Characters: Macbeth, Macduff

Location: Dunsinane, another part of the field

Time: During the battle

Events: Macbeth faces Macduff and is horrified to discover that Macduff was born by Caesarean. At first, Macbeth refuses to fight. Then they fight and rather than submitting to Malcolm and facing the humiliation, Macbeth continues to fight before being killed.

Quote #1: “Despair thy charm, and let the angel whom thou still hast served tell thee, Macduff was from his mother’s womb untimely ripped.” – Macduff informs that he was born by Caesarean

Quote #2: “I will not yield, to kiss the ground before young Malcolm’s feet, and to be baited with the rabble’s curse. Though Birnam wood be come to Dunsinane and thou opposed, being of no woman born, yet I will try the last: before my body I throw my warlike shield: lay on, Macduff; and damned be him that first cries, “Hold, enough!” – Macbeth’s final speech

Act 5, Scene 9 Summary

Characters: Malcolm, Old Siward, Rosse, Macduff, Thanes, Soldiers

Location: Dunsinane, within the castle

Time: After the battle and Macbeth’s death

Events: Rosse tells Old Siward that his son is dead. Old Siward expresses his pride that his son died bravely, killed whilst fighting, and Macduff enters with Macbeth’s severed head, Malcolm rewards the loyal thanes by making them earls, explains what has to be done, and invites everyone to his coronation. Malcolm also reveals that he believes Lady Macbeth killed herself.

Quote: “Hail, King! for so thou art. behold, where stands th’ usurper’s cursed head: the time is free. I see thee compassed with thy kingdom’s pearl, that speak my salutation in their minds; whose voices I desire aloud wth mine, – Hail, King of Scotland!




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